Elisha Kent Kane Historical Society

FOOTNOTES

Raising Kane: the Making of a Hero, the Marketing of a Celebrity

by Mark Horst Sawin

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1. Note the extraordinary success of John C. Frémont's and Bayard Taylor's accounts of their Western expeditions as well as the success of Peale's Museum in Philadelphia and Barnum's Museum in New York. For further information on America's fascination with the West and how its explorers brought the West back to the public, see William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire, 1966.

2. Robert A. Divine et al., America Past and Present, v1, p. 371-75.

3. For a good discussion of this process, see chapter 3, "Portents of Class Division," in J. William Harris, Plain Folk and Gentry in a Slave Society, 1985.

4. Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861, p. x.

5. For a good overview of this era's use and consumption of media, see chapter 6, "A Press for the Masses," in Michael & Edwin Emery, The Press and America: An Interpretive History of the Mass Media, 6th ed., 1988.

6. James Hart, The Popular Book, p. 92.

7. For further information about these genres of popular literature see: David Reynolds, Beneath the American Renaissance, 1988; Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture, 1977; Nina Baym, Women's Fiction, 1978; and Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861, 1960.

8. NY Tribune, September 26, 1851, "The Book Trade of the United States." The article also notes that 52 juvenile works, 32 gift-books, 80 hymnals and works of poetry, 96 biographies, 50 scientific works, and 170 theological works were published between July of 1850 and July of 1851.

9. Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861, p. 223.

10. "John C. Frémont," Dictionary of American Biography. See also chapter 7, "When the Eagle Screamed," in William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire, 1966.

11. Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861, p. 223.

12. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Topical Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, v. 3, p. 61, 313; James Grant Wilson, Thackeray in the United States, p. 66-67; Eugene Exman, The Brothers Harper, p. 359-60.

13. William H. Goetzmann, New Lands, New Men, p. 229

.

14. John Aldrich Christie, Thoreau as World Traveler, p. 45, 198.

15. William H. Goetzmann, New Lands New Men, p. xiii.

16. John K. Kane, Autobiography of, p. 36-42.; see also Henry Simpson, Ed., The Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, p. 613-18.

17. Henry Simpson, Ed., The Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, p. 615. It seems likely that this biographical sketch was written by Judge Kane's son, Thomas Leiper Kane, who appears as a contributor to the work and who was himself a skilled manipulator of public opinion.

18. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 23-24.

19. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 37.

20. Elisha Kent Kane, "Experiments on Kiesteine with Remarks on its Application to Pregnancy," American Journal of Medical Sciences, 1842, p. 13-37.

21. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 32-33.

22. Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861, p. 221.

23. Henry Simpson, Ed., The Lives of Eminent Philadelphians, p. 614.

24.William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 100.

25. Robert Johannsen, To the Halls of the Montezumas, p. 35.

26. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 49.

27. Robert Johannsen, To the Halls of the Montezumas, p. 29.

28. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 52.

29. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 50-51.

30. Albert L. Zobell Jr. Sentinel in the East: A Biography of Thomas L. Kane, 1965.

31. The Pennsylvanian, March 24, 1848.

32. The Pennsylvanian, March 24, 1848.

33. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 66-68.

34. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 68.

35. Todd M. Lieber, Endless Experiments, p. 36.

36. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 70.

37. John Christie, Thoreau as World Traveler, p. 188.

38. Richard Vaughan, The Arctic: A History, p. 154-56.

39. Richard Vaughan, The Arctic: A History, p. 155, 168.

40. Nancy Fogelson, Arctic Exploration & International Relations, p. 11.

41. Matthew Fountain Maury, The Physical Geography of the Sea, chapter 8, "The Open Polar Sea."

42. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 79-80.

43. Richard Vaughan, The Arctic: A History, p. 156, 170; George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 89-94.

44. Harper's, April, 1851, p. 588-97.

45. Harper's, April, 1851, p. 596.

46. Harper's, April, 1851, p. 597.

47. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 99-100.

48. Elisha Kent Kane, The United States Grinnell Expedition, p. 426.

49. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 100-01.

50. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, The Literary History of Philadelphia, p. 368.

51. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 95.

52. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, The Literary History of Philadelphia, p. 368.

53. NY Times, Sept. 24, 1851, p. 1; NY Tribune, Sept. 24, 1851, p. 6 & Sept. 25, 1851, p. 6.

54. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 102.

55. NY Times, October 1, 1851, p. 2-3. The Christiana case involved a Maryland man who was beaten and killed by a "band of armed men" when he attempted to retrieve his runaway slave from Christiana, Pennsylvania. Instead of charging the men with murder, Judge John Kane charged them with treason, basing this charge on their blatant violation of the Fugitive Slave Act. Both murder and treason were capital offenses, but treason, as the newspapers of the day noted, carried with it an air of martyrdom. By charging them with treason it seems that Kane was symbolically legitimizing their cause by equating them with the heroic American revolutionaries who also committed treason instead of bowing to unjust laws. This made his ruling very controversial as it turned a simple murder case into yet another debate over the legitimacy of slavery.

56. NY Times, October 9, 1851, p. 2, & November 5, 1851, p. 1; NY Tribune, November 5, 1851, p. 5.

57. NY Tribune, November 5, 1851, p. 5.

58. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 103.

59. National Intelligencer (Washington DC), December 29 & 31, 1851, and January 3, 1852.

60. Daily Pennsylvanian, February 4, 1852, p. 1.

61. Albert L. Zobell, Sentinel in the East, p. 29-30.

* Boorstin, without explanation, places the "Graphic Revolution" at the turn of the twentieth century and thus only uses examples since that time. Given the explosion of newspapers, magazines, and books that took place early in the nineteenth century it seems very reasonable to use his analysis for the period we are discussing

62. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Image, p. 61

63. For a fuller account see Neil Harris, Humbug: The Art of P. T. Barnum, 1973. For excellent illustrations and photographs but a less rigorous account see Kunhardt, Kunhardt, & Kunhardt, P.T. Barnum: America's Greatest Showman, 1995.

* Because Margaret and Catherine were promoted as child prodigies their ages were often misrepresented. A deposition sworn by Margaret's mother in 1848 stated that Margaret was 15 at the time. This corresponds with the date I used, which is the date given in the article on Kane in the Dictionary of American Biography. Note also that sources disagree about the sister's names. Margaret, Margaretta, Catherine, and Katherine as well as Maggie, Maggy, Kate, Katty, Katie, and Cathie are all used. I have chosen to use Maggie and Kate during their years as children and Margaret and Catherine formally as this is how they signed their names in The Death-Blow to Spiritualism: The True Story of the Fox Sisters, 1888.

64. NY Tribune, August 20, 1849. Because this event was considered the founding moment of the Spiritualist movement, many testimonies of the event were brought forward, including several "signed affidavits" and "sworn testimonies" by Mrs. Fox. Her accounts vary widely, as sometimes she cited Margaret as the daughter who first communicated with the rappings and at other times that it was Kate. These testimonies were published in early spiritualist books such as E.W. Capron, Modern Spiritualism: Its Facts and Fanaticisms, 1855, and in Ann Leah Underhill [the eldest Fox sister], The Missing Link in Modern Spiritualism, 1885. Accounts continue to be published to this day. See for example the First Spiritual Temple of Brookline, Massachusetts' world-wide-web page, http://www. fst.org/spirit4.htm July, 1997.

65. Earl Wesley Fornell, The Unhappy Medium, p. 12-15. Different sources report this story differently but the net effect is the same in each; Margaret and Kate wind up with their sister Ann Leah Fish in Rochester.

66. Earl Wesley Fornell, The Unhappy Medium, p. 16-19. It is interesting to note that both of the Quakers who defended Margaret, Amy Post and George Willets, became heroes within the spiritualist community. E.W. Capron dedicated his 1855 book to Willets citing him as "one of the pioneers in rational spiritualism, who stood calm and firm... and who has been, in many ways... a martyr to the cause of truth."

67. Earl Wesley Fornell, The Unhappy Medium, p. 24.

68. Earl Wesley Fornell, The Unhappy Medium, p. 25-26.

69. NY Tribune, April 22, 1850; Horace Greeley, Recollections of a Busy Life, p. 234-44.

70. Earl Wesley Fornell, The Unhappy Medium, p. 38.

71. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 23-24.

72. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 46.

73. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 108.

74. Howard Kerr, Mediums, and Spirit-Rappers, and Roaring Radicals. p. 9.

75. Reuben Briggs Davenport, The Death-Blow to Spiritualism, p. 37.

76. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 49.

77. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 62.

78. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 48.

79. Jane Tompkins, "Afterword" The Wide, Wide World, p. 585.

80. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 52.

81. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 30, 39-41.

82. Karen Lystra, Searching the Heart, p. 9-10.

83. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p.57, 65.

84. Karen Lystra, Searching the Heart, p. 17.

85. Karen Lystra, Searching the Heart, p. 17.

86. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 43, 84.

87. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 55-56.

88. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 92.

89. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 60.

90. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 88, 106, 96.

91. Elisha Kent Kane collection, The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

92. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 123; [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 149.

93. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 114, 117.

94. This painting survived Kane's Arctic adventure but has sense been lost. Its companion, a portrait of Kane by Fagnani, still survives and was recently acquired by the Elisha Kent Kane Historical Society of New York City.

* "Ly" was a pet-name for Kane

95. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 146, 142-44.

96. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 151.

97. [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 159-60.

98. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 120, 292 n1.

99. L. H. Neatby, Conquest of the Last Frontier, p. 5-6.

100. For a good account of Hans and his work with English and American expeditions see Henry Rink, Ed., Memoirs of Hans Hendrik the Arctic Traveller, serving under Kane, Hayes, Hall, and Nares, 1853-1876, 1878.

101. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 177. This represents one of the strongest points of Corner's biography as he does a wonderful job of telling the story of the Second Grinnell Expedition via Kane's and the other crew members' journals, providing a much more honest telling of the adventure than the happy and unified tale that Kane told publicly in Arctic Explorations.

102. Eugene Exman, The Brothers Harper, p. 359-60. At least one copy of the pre-fire edition still exists and is housed at the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

103. Frank Rasky, The North Pole or Bust, p. 166-67.

104. Harper's, March, 1854, p. 446.

105. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 230-31, 293n6.

106. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 220-21.

107. Richard Vaughan, The Arctic: A History, p. 126-7.

108. For a full account of the relief expedition see John K. Kane Jr., "The Kane Relief Expedition," Putnam's Monthly Magazine, July 1856, p. 451-63.

109. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 225.

110. Frank Rasky, The North Pole or Bust, p. 188.

111. Elisha Kent Kane collection, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

112. NY Tribune, October 13, 1855, p. 5.

113. For examples see NY Tribune, October 13, 1855, "A Welcome to Dr. Kane"; and the Troy Daily Whig, October 24, 1855, "The Dog Toodles."

114. Elisha Kent Kane collection, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

115. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 140.

116. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 194-97.

* Howard Kerr, Mediums, and Spirit-Rappers, and Roaring Radicals, p. 12-13.

* A new Kane family archive recently acquired by Brigham Young University will provide scholars with a much clearer account of the Kane family's response to Fox. According to BYU archivist James Whittaker, the new archive includes letters discussing what to do about not only the letters Fox had of Elisha clearly discussing their marriage, but also the fact that she had a wedding ring that was obviously from Elisha. More intriguing still are a series of diary entries by Elizabeth Wood Kane (Thomas's wife) discussing the family's cover up of not only a wedding, but a child. A better analysis of these letters will be possible at the beginning of 1998, when the archive is opened to the public.

117. Troy Daily Whig (Troy, New York), October 19, 1855, p. 2.

118. NY Tribune, November 6, 1855, p. 5.

119. Daily Pennsylvanian, November 10, 1855.

120. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 210.

121. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 212-13.

122. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 215.

123. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 222, 226.

124. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 228, 236.

125. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 236-37.

126. Samuel Smucker, The Life of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, p. 75.

127. Carl Bode, The Anatomy of American Popular Culture, 1840-1861, p. 223; Frank Rasky, The North Pole or Bust, p. 160.

128. George W. Childs, Recollections, p. 12-13; George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 235.

129. Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, v.1 p. 1006.

130. Constance Martin, James Hamilton, Arctic Watercolours, p. 9-13.

131. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 219.

132. Roger B. Stein, "A Portfolio: American Seascape Art," America and the Sea, p. 165.

133. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 237.

134. This extensive effort to convey his scientific discoveries via charts, tables, and sketches was Kane's solution to what William H. Goetzmann notes was the era's dilemma of "how to describe new scientific discoveries that could not be adequately described on a printed page." William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire, p. 333.

135. H. J. Rawnsley, Ed., Life, Dairies, and Correspondences of Lady Franklin, p. 266.

136. Elisha Kent Kane, The U.S. Grinnell Expedition, promotional pages from the Childs & Peterson reprinted edition of 1856.

137. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, The Literary History of Philadelphia, p. 372.

138. John Sampson, "Personal Narratives, Journals, and Diaries," America and the Sea, p. 90.

139. NY Times, October 12, 1855, p. 1.

140. NY Times, October 16, 1855, p. 2; George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 167.

141. Matthew Fountain Maury, The Physical Geography of the Sea, p. 177.

142. NY Times, October 24 & 30, 1855.

143. Peter Knox-Shaw, The Explorer in English Fiction, p. 1-8.

144. William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire, p. 199.

145. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 167-68.

146. Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic Explorations, v. 1, p. 306.

147. George W. Childs, Recollections, p. 12.

148. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 242.

149. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 256.

150. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 263-66, 268.

151. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 269-72.

152. undated letter from Mrs. Fox to Robert Patterson Kane, Elisha Kent Kane Collection, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia; George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 244.

153. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 280. This silence may prove important if evidence of a love-child between Kane and Fox is substantiated in the BYU papers.

154. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Life of Dr. Kane, 284-85.

155. Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, The Literary History of Philadelphia, p. 372.

* Though Fox identifies her publisher only as "Mrs. Ellet of magazine celebrity," it seems certain that she was addressing Elizabeth Ellet who was writing and publishing in New York at that time. The Dictionary of American Biography notes that Ellet was a popular writer of Women's history and literary criticism whose prose tended to be "gossipy and superficially interesting."

156. Miriam Buckner Pond, Time is Kind, p. 219; See also undated & unsigned letter in Elisha Kent Kane collection, American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

157. Fox, p. viii-x.

158. Fox, p. vii.

159. Fox, p. viii. Fox's italics.

160. I have reviewed all the correspondence between Kane and Fox in the American Philosophical Society collection and, with the exception of the switching of a few insignificant words, the letters in Fox's account match perfectly. George Corner also did extensive work to determine the authenticity of the letters Fox printed and found that with the exception of a little editorial polish, they were accurate. See George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 114.

161. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 233.

162. NY Times, October 22, 1888. For a full account see Reuben Davenport, The Death-Blow to Spiritualism, 1888.

163. NY Times, March 5, 1893. A short obituary appears in the NY Times of March 10, 1893 which incorrectly reports her as the youngest of the Fox sisters. Interestingly, the obituary notes that she was married to Elisha Kent Kane in 1856 "by the Quaker rite."

164. Ibid., p. 245-50; [Margaret Fox], Love-Life of Dr. Kane, p. 277.

165. NY Tribune, February 18, 1857, p. 5.

166. A full account of this remarkable procession appears in a 100+ page appendix at the end of William Elder's Biography of Elisha Kent Kane.

167. NY Tribune, February 26, 1857, p. 4; NY Times, March 3, 1857, p. 2; Read Thornton, "The Death of Doctor Kane," NY Evening Post, undated clipping from March, 1857. The biggest poetic work dedicated to Kane was George Walton Chapman's A Tribute to Kane, 1860.

168. Putnam's Monthly Magazine, April, 1857, p. 436.

169. [August Sonntag], Professor Sonntag's Thrilling Narrative of the Grinnell Exploring Expedition to the Arctic Ocean, p. 7.

170. [August Sonntag], Professor Sonntag's Thrilling Narrative of the Grinnell Exploring Expedition to the Arctic Ocean, p. 4.

171. [August Sonntag], Professor Sonntag's Thrilling Narrative of the Grinnell Exploring Expedition to the Arctic Ocean, p. 29.

172. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 3.

173. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 3.

174. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 13-16.

175. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 19-25. This last tale must have been especially popular for in Morrison Heady's 1864 juvenile work on Washington, The Farmer Boy, and How He Became Commander-in-Chief, the story is transferred to Washington as Heady wrote that George stopped his father from whipping a young slave-boy saying, "O papa, papa! don't whip poor Jerry: if somebody must be whipped, let it be me." See Marcus Cunliffe's introduction to The Life of Washington.

176. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 18-19.

177. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 35.

178. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 63-65.

179. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 40.

180. William Elder, Biography of Elisha Kent Kane, p. 117-18.

181. The Atlantic Monthly, March, 1858, p. 636-38.

182. Isaac I. Hayes, An Arctic Boat Journey in the Autumn of 1854, 1860. Hayes used this book to help promote his own Arctic expedition of 1860-61 which he described in a later book, The Open Polar Sea, 1867. He again returned to the Arctic in 1869 to explore the geography of northern Greenland. This adventure is the topic of Hayes' final book, The Land of Desolation, 1871.

183. [William Morton], "Dr. Kane's Arctic Voyage," 1857. This pamphlet includes the text of the show and descriptions of the panorama.

184. Carl J. Petersen, Erindringer fra Polarlandene opegnede af Carl Petersen, tolk ve Pennys og Kanes nordexpeditioner, 1850-55, 1857; Henry Rink, Memoirs of Hans Hendrik the Arctic Traveller, 1878.

185. Samuel M. Smucker, The Life of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane and Other Distinguished American Explorers, 1858; George Walton Chapman, A Tribute to Kane: and Other Poems, 1860.

186. George Corner, Dr. Kane of the Arctic Seas, p. 271.

187. Daniel Boorstin, The Image, p. 63.

188. [Margaret Fox], The Love-Letters of Dr. Kane, p. 204.

189. [Margaret Fox] Love-Letters of Dr. Kane, p. 204-05.

190. Charles W. Shields, The Century Magazine, August, 1898, p. 482-92.

191. Jules Verne, The Field of Ice, 1895. See also Verne's The English at the North Pole.

192. Amos Bonsall, "After Fifty Years" The White World , p. 38-50.

193. Jeannette Mirsky, Elisha Kent Kane and the Seafaring Frontier, 1954; George Corner, "Hero with a Damaged Heart," Medicine, Science, and Culture, 1968; Jay & Audrey Walz, The Undiscovered Country, 1958.

194. Oscar M. Villarejo, Dr. Kane's Voyage to the Polar Lands, 1965; Earl Wesley Fornell, The Unhappy Medium, 1964.

195. Andrea Barrett to Mark Sawin, March 15, 1997.

196. These letters will be housed at Brigham Young University.

197. The Elisha Kent Kane Historical Society, http://home.navisoft.com/ekkhs, June, 1997.

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